Project Name
The Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young Children (DUTY) Study: a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.


NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology Assessment 

DUTY logo

Principal Investigator
Prof Chris Butler & Dr Alastair Hay

J. Benger, P. Brindle, B. Delaney, J. Dudley, M. Fletcher, W. Hollingworth, K. Hood, R. Howe, P. Little, A. MacGowan, A. Montgomery, K. O'Brien, J. Sterne, P. Whiting, J. Van der Voort

Type of study

Lay summary
DUTY is a 3 year observational study of the factors associated with UTI in children presenting in primary care.  The primary aim of the study is to derive and validate a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of UTI, in children aged before their fifth birthday presenting to primary care with an acute illness. UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. UTIs in young children can cause serious illness and recurrent symptoms. A delayed or missed diagnosis may lead to rare but serious complications.

The clinical diagnosis of UTI in young children is difficult because; 1) young children cannot clearly articulate what they are feeling and present with the same non-specific symptoms (e.g. fever, irritability, poor feeding, vomiting) when suffering from a wide range of illnesses; 2) identifying unusual appearance of urine or changes in the frequency of urination is difficult in children wearing nappies. NICE guidelines state that good quality evidence regarding the externally validated predictive value of symptoms, signs and urinalysis for UTI in young children is urgently needed to help primary care clinicians better identify UTI.

This study will provide novel, clinically important information on the epidemiology and presentation of childhood UTI that will be used to develop a feasible and cost effective clinical tool to help primary care clinicians in the UK and worldwide improve the efficiency of diagnosing UTI in young children. This will help minimise acute suffering and may help prevent serious long-term complications.

Start date
January 2010

End date
December 2012 

Further info
DUTY website